In the final chapter of the writing of Micah, the prophet describes his personal sorrow and grief over the spiritual condition of God’s covenant people. He likens the situation, vss. 1-2a, to a ravaged harvest where no gleanings remain to be enjoyed as the best “fruits” (the righteous) have been removed from the land. The unrighteous who remain are treacherous and deceivers, vss. 2b-6, but Micah trusts solely in the LORD, vs. 7. The prophet stresses the guidance of the LORD for his life, vs.8 and confesses his sins and is sure of the righteousness of God, vs. 9. Micah reminds his audience that God will restore the land, but He will judge His people as the rightful fruit of their actions, vss. 10-13. Yet there is hope for God’s people for He will again demonstrate His loyal love to them. God will pardon their sins and remove them and be faithful to His covenant He made with their forefathers, Abraham, and Jacob, vss. 14-20.
- 7:1-7 The Transgressions of Judah
7:1-6 The People who Sin
Verses 1-7 is in the form of a lament. Micah grieves over the spiritual bareness of the people of the land and likens this situation to a ravaged harvest where nothing is left for picking much desired fruit, where even the early ripe figs which he craves are unavailable. Micah bemoans that those who were the righteous people of God have perished from the land and all who are left are given over to the most vile forms of wickedness. These people ambush and murder their own family members. Even the most intimate of their families cannot be trusted and what is spoken in confidence within the household will be used against them. Their leaders are totally corrupt, constantly seeking bribes and weaving vicious plots against their own people. There is no one who is righteous. Micah knows that the only One to be trusted is the God of his salvation and the prophet looks to Him and waits for Him. For God will hear his plea and respond to his call for guidance.
1 Woe is me!
For I am as one after the summer fruit has been gathered,
after the grapes have been harvested;
when there is no cluster left to eat,
no early fig that I crave.
Micah begins his lament with a rarely used word for woe, ’alelay, which is found only in this verse and in Job 10:15, “woe to me.” A more common word for woe, is hôy occurring 52 times in the O.T., including in Micah 2:1. A similar word to hôy is ’ôy, which occurs 24 times in the O.T. Micah’s exclamation of woe is similar to that of his contemporary, Isaiah, “Woe is me! For I am doomed; for I am a man of unclean lips, and I live in the midst of a people of unclean lips.” Isaiah 6:5 For Micah, the sins of the people, vss. 2b-8, and those he committed, vs. 9 brought upon him this recognition that his generation will bear the judgment of God. This is acknowledged in vs. 13 but wonderfully God’s amazing grace is seen in vss. 18-20, with the precious declaration that God pardons sins and has compassion on the “remnant of his possession.”
The first cause of Micah’s grief and sorrow is the spiritual decline of his generation. Micah employs the imagery of a harvest, vs. 1, which has been so completely picked that there was no fruit left for gleaning, Micah may have had God’s instruction for leaving a part of the harvest unpicked for others to benefit in mind, “When you reap the harvest of your land, you must not completely reap to the edges of your field, neither gather the gleanings that fall from your harvest. Leave them there for the poor and the foreigner. I am the LORD your God.” Leviticus 23:22. See also Hosea 9:10. Micah, in this portrait of his society, was anticipating the leftover fruit and the early fig which he craved. The greed of the farmers left no residue from the harvest for the “poor and the foreigner” to gather. This requirement of God, is central to the story of Ruth, including the kindness of Boaz who was a just and compassionate landowner. There were obviously no one like Boaz in the days of Micah.
Isaiah also described a picture of an expectant harvest, Isaiah 5:1-7. The landowner in Isaiah’s parable was the LORD who did all He could to prepare the land for the grape harvest. In spite of His care for the vineyard, the harvest only yielded wild grapes unsuitable for their intended use. The vineyard was described as “the house of Israel, and the people of Judah.” Isaiah 5:7. These people Isaiah described were full of unrighteousness and bloodshed which is similar to the wickedness of the people Micah described in 7:2-6. Micah gives the application of this picture of harvest in 7:2a. See also Psalm 80:8-16.
2a The faithful have perished from the land,
and there is no one upright left.
The application of the picture of the fully picked harvest in 7:1 is described by Micah in 7:2. The gleanings of the harvest including the succulent early fig is a description of the faithful of the land. They are not the majority of the people but represent the “remnant of His possession,” vs. 18. Micah grieves for these faithful ones who have perished from the land. Micah may have surmised that no righteous remnant were left in the land, similar to the claim of Elijah, “I have been very zealous for the LORD, the God of hosts; but the Israelites have forsaken your covenant, thrown down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I am the only one left, and now they are trying to kill me too.” 1 Kings 19:14. God corrected Elijah’s contention, “I have 7,000 left in Israel, all of whom have never bowed the knee to Baal or have kissed him with their mouths.” 1 Kings 19:18. So likely there were a few of God’s remnant in the land who remained faithful to Him, but these few were not in significant numbers to be visible to the eyes of Micah. God in His grace, maintains a remnant in every generation who remain faithful to Him. See notes on “remnant” in the selected studies section. However, there were in the O.T. indications that very few righteous people could be identified. Abraham pled with the LORD to spare Sodom if there were but ten righteous souls living in that sinful city, but not ten could be found, Genesis chapters 18 and 19. Jeremiah was instructed by God to, “search up and down the streets of Jerusalem, look around and know, inspect its squares, see if you can find one person who acts justly and seeks truth, and I will pardon the city.” Jeremiah 5:1
The word “faithful” in the DASV is the Hebrew ḥâsîyd, which can be translated as godly.1 King David expressed a similar concern as did Micah about the removal of the faithful from his generation. David wrote, “Help, O LORD, for anyone who is godly is gone; the faithful have vanished from the human race.” Psalm 12:1. But, the LORD cares for His faithful ones. Hannah referred to the Lord’s care for these faithful in her prayer, “He will protect the feet of his holy ones, but the wicked will be silenced in darkness.” 1 Samuel 2:9.
David also wrote, “For the LORD loves justice; he never abandons his faithful ones; they are protected forever, but the children of the wicked will be cut off.” Psalm 37:28. And again David wrote, “But know that the LORD has set apart the godly for himself; the LORD will hear when I call to him.” Psalm 4:3. Another Psalmist wrote, “You who love the LORD, hate evil; he protects the lives of his saints; he delivers them out of the hand of the wicked.” Psalm 97:10. King Solomon wrote, “For the LORD gives wisdom, out of his mouth come knowledge and understanding. 7 He reserves sound wisdom for the upright, he is a shield to those who walk with integrity; 8 he guards the paths of the just and preserves the way of those faithful to him.” Proverbs 2:6-8.
2b They all set an ambush for bloodshed;
every one hunts his brother with a net.
3 Their hands are skilled at doing evil;
the officials and judge ask for a bribe.
The prominent ones make their demands,
thus they weave their plots together.
The second cause of Micah’s grief and sorrow is the wickedness of God’s covenant people who have broken His covenant and filled the land with injustice, greed, sedition and bloodshed. This was a message Micah had previously declared, “they build up Zion with blood, and Jerusalem with injustice,” 3:10 and “for the rich of your city are full of violence,” 6:12. Micah in 7:2b adds that all (not only the leaders of society and the rich) have set an ambush with murderous intentions. Another prophet had conveyed a similar message, “Hear the word of the LORD, you Israelites, for the LORD has a legal case against the inhabitants of the land, because there is no truth, loyalty, or knowledge of God in the land. 2 There is only swearing and lying, murder, stealing, and adultery; nothing but bloodshed after bloodshed.” Hosea 4:1-2.
Micah continues this description of setting up an ambush by stating that everyone “hunts his brother with a net.” It is a picture of how one would snare a bird or small animal. Vulnerable people, like birds and small animals, would be unsuspecting of the calamity that would soon befall them. In the case of people this is made even more vile for the victims are brothers. One who murdered his brother is first stated in the Scriptures by Cain’s murder of his brother Abel, Genesis 4:8-16. The word “brother” can also refer to close relatives or simply to other members of society, Numbers 20:3; Joshua 1:14-15; 22:3-4.
Micah laments, 7:3, that the “all” and “everyone” in 7:2, are skilled at doing evil. The KJV has, “that they may do evil with both hands earnestly.” It is a description of those who have both skill and a zeal for evil doing. See also Jeremiah 4:22. Instead of developing a zeal and a learned skill for serving God, the people of Micah’s generation have turned their desires and abilities to wickedness and evil gain. This is particularly applicable to the leaders of society, those likely of the Kings court, the “officials”2 and to those entrusted with rendering just and righteous decisions, the “judges.” They perform their duties demanding a bribe from the poor and less fortunate. Micah often spoke against acts of social injustice within his society, 2:1-2, 8-9; 3:2-3, 5, 9-11; 6:10-12, and16. Demanding bribes for performing assigned duties was prohibited in the law, Exodus 23:8; Deuteronomy 10:17; 16:19 and 27:25. Leaders of God’s covenant community had a duty to care for common people, Leviticus 25:35-36 and Deuteronomy 15:7-12.
The words in the latter half of 7:3 in the DASV, “the prominent ones make their demands” are much more literally translated in the KJV, “and the great man, he uttereth his mischievous desire,” and in the ESV, “the great man utters the evil desire of his soul.” The “great man” is likely a reference to the King himself or to closest advisers to the King, who may have been members of King Manasseh’s court. After the death of King Hezekiah, his son Manasseh soon reversed all the righteous acts his father had made, 2 Kings 21:1-9, 16. For these wicked acts, God brought judgment upon the Judean society, 2 Kings 21:10-15. The evil desire (Hebrew hawwâ) of the great man were spoken to other leaders who both “weave their plots together.” The word “weave” in 7:3 is the Hebrew ‘âḇaṯ, occurring only in this verse in the O.T. It has a derivate ‘ăḇôt,3 occurring 25 times in the O.T. including in Isaiah 5:18, translated as “rope;” “Woe to those who drag iniquity with cords of falsehood, and sin along like with a cart rope.”
This is a portrait by Micah of the interconnectedness of evil within the society. Evil desires and plots were first woven from the king’s throne, into the hands of his court officials and then to the leaders of society. God would in judgment upon this society, break these woven plots (bonds of wickedness). The Psalmist declares, “The LORD is righteous, he has cut the cords of the wicked.” Psalm 129:4. In a far future day God will also defeat the evil desires and plots of the wicked who plan together to overthrow God’s righteous rule, Psalm 2.
4 The best of them is like a brier;
the most upright is worse than a hedge of thorns.
The day of your watchmen, even your punishment, is come;
now their confusion has arrived.
Micah in 7:4 continues his denunciation of the people of Judah who have all abandoned any sense of righteous living and have bent their desires and hands to wickedness. The situation is so severe that even the best of those in this vile society are likened to hard and sharp briers and hedges of thorns. One scholar comments, “The best of them is a piercing, hard, and injurious as a brier; the most upright is more sharp and crooked than a thorn hedge. They injure and plague all who come in touch with them. (Cp. 2 Sa 23:6-7). The corruption is, indeed, so widespread and outbroken that judgment must follow.” Charles L. Feinberg, The Minor Prophets, (Micah), Moody Press, 1976, page 182. Proverbs contains a similar sentiment regarding those who are lazy, “The way of the slothful man is as a hedge of thorns; but the way of the righteous is made plain.” Proverbs 15:19 KJV.
The word “upright” in the second line is the Hebrew yâšâr which occurs four times in Micah’s prophecy. In 2:7 it is translated in the DASV as “uprightly;” in 2:7 as “straight” in 3:9 and as “upright” in 7:2. It would be difficult to identify any who would be “upright” within this evil generation as Micah had previously stated in 7:2 that “the faithful have perished from the land.” So Micah’s mention of “the best of them” and the “most upright” of them is a description of just how far they had strayed from God’s requirements for His people. For example, “Do what is right and good in the sight of the LORD so that it may go well with you.” Deuteronomy 6:18a. Also, “Be careful to obey all these words that I am commanding you, that it may go well with you, and your children after you forever, when you do what is good and right in the eyes of the LORD your God.” Deuteronomy 12:28.
The second half of Micah 7:4 is somewhat difficult to discern as to what is the exact intention of the prophet’s words. There are some differences of opinion within the English versions as these three examples demonstrate.:
NET (2nd edition): “Woe to your watchmen; your appointed punishment is on the way. The time of their confusion is now.”
LEB: “The day of your watchman, your punishment, has come; now their confusion will come.”
KJV: “The day of thy watchmen and thy visitation cometh; now shall be their perplexity.”
The first concern for the student of the Scriptures is to determine the meaning of the word “watchmen.”4 Is this a reference to those who have sentinel duty on a city’s wall to sound the alarm when enemies or others approach? See 1 Samuel 14:16; 2 Samuel 18:24-27 and 2 Kings 9:17-20. If this is so, this may be a warning that these watchmen are perplexed as to what is coming and fail to warn the city of approaching doom. Or is this a reference to God’s prophets who are called watchmen? See Jeremiah 6:17; Ezekiel 3:17-21 and Habakkuk 2:1. If this is Micah’s intention, then the people who fail to obey the prophet’s warnings are the ones who face punishment and confusion. It is perhaps best to understand Micah’s words as referring to prophets such as himself (also Isaiah) who faithfully proclaim God’s words of coming judgment which is stated as “the day of your watchmen (God’s appointed prophets), even your punishment is come.” By the declaration of God’s words through the prophets, His people are warned that they are receiving God’s punishment (judgment) upon them. It is a punishment that causes confusion among God’s unfaithful covenant people. The word “confusion” is the Hebrew meḇûḵâ, which only occurs twice in the O.T. It also occurs in Isaiah 22:5, in a context of judgment, “For it is a day of panic, defeat, and confusion, from the Lord, the LORD of hosts, in the Valley of Vision. It is a day of battering down of the walls, and cries for help to the mountains.”
The second concern is the timing of this pronounced punishment.5 The various English translations provide differing time tenses to this punishment. The DASV states this punishment “is come” and their confusion “has arrived.” The LEB gives differing times by stating that this punishment “has come” but their confusion “will come.” The NET (2nd edition) also seems to state differing times by stating their punishment “is on the way” but the time of their confusion “is now.” The KJV seems to have an imminent (now) time for the arrival of both judgment (visitation) and perplexity (confusion). If the judgment has now come, just what event does this reference? It may be suggested that the prophet is referring to the destruction of the northern kingdom of Israel in 722-21 B.C. by the Assyrians. This however is problematic as Micah’s prophetic ministry was to the southern kingdom of Judah and just a few references of the northern kingdom are stated, see 6:17. Also Micah may be pointing to the Assyrian campaign of 701 B.C. in Judah which resulted in the destruction of many Judean cities but did not include the capture of Jerusalem. This is also problematic as Jerusalem was sparred and did not suffer destruction during Micah’s lifetime.
In Micah 2:4, the prophet refers to “in that day” which is a future reference to the disaster that God is planning for His rebellious and wicked covenant people. In Micah 3:12 it is Jerusalem and Mount Zion that will face God’s punishment. In 4:10, the prophet states emphatically that the “daughter of Zion” will “go to Babylon.” So it is clearly apparent that Micah is declaring that it is the people of God in Jerusalem (and Zion) who will face God’s punishment and also that this punishment although declared “now” by Micah will occur at a later time, “in that day.” As history has revealed, this day was to occur from 605 to 586 B.C. during several attacks on the city by the Babylonians, culminating in 586 B.C. when the armies of King Nebuchadnezzar completely destroyed Jerusalem and its temple. The exile of elite Judeans to Babylon also occurred “in that day” (605-586 B.C.). See Daniel 1:1-5.b See also Isaiah 2:12-17; 10:3; 22:5 and Hosea 9:7. It is possible that the Isaiah and Hosea passages just cited could refer to a far future day during the time of the great Tribulation period.
5 Do not trust a neighbor;
do not put confidence in a friend.
Guard the doors of your mouth even from her who lies in your arms.
6 For the son disrespects his father,
the daughter rises up against her mother,
the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law,
one’s enemies are the members of their own household.
In 7:5-6, Micah turns his attention from the leaders of the nation, vss. 4-5 to all families in the land. The society had so completely collapsed morally that there was no security or protective trust within the city or even in the household structure.6 This failure of trust in vs. 5 moves from outside the home, a neighbor, to that of a friend and then to the most intimate of family relations, the embrace of a husband and wife. The word “trust” in vs. 5 is the Hebrew âman, is often translated as “faithful,” in a negative meaning as in Isaiah 1:21, “How the faithful city has become a whore! She was once full of justice, righteousness inhabited her, but now only murderers.” And also in a positive meaning, as in Isaiah 1:26, “I will restore your judges as at the first, and your counselors as at the beginning. Afterward you will be called, ‘the City of Righteousness,’ ‘a Faithful Town.’” There was a time when Judah was considered “faithful” in comparison to the northern nation of Israel, Hosea 11:12 but those days quickly evaporated, and Micah laments their passing.
The word “confidence” in 7:5 is the Hebrew ḇâṭaḥ, which has a similar meaning to âman. The prophet Hosea used the word ḇâṭaḥ (trusted) when describing his society, “You have plowed wickedness, you have reaped injustice; you have eaten the fruit of lies, because you trusted in your own strength, in your many mighty warriors.” Hosea 10:13.
In 7:6, the prophet further details the utter breakdown of trust and respect within the family structure. The word “household” is the common Hebrew word ḇayit occurring over 2,000 times in the O.T. A study of this household structure reveals a great deal about the extended family structure in ancient Judean society.7 Children disrespect, (to treat with contempt) Hebrew nâḇêl, their parents in direct contempt of the commandment to honor father and mother, Exodus 20:12 and Leviticus 19:3. Jesus quoted from Micah 7:6 in a passage, Matthew 10:21, that had significance for the mission of His disciples and also had eschatological overtones. See also Matthew 10:35-36; Mark 13:12; Luke 12:53. Compare with Matthew 24:10-12. For the moral decline of society, see also Romans 1:18-32 and 2 Timothy 3:1-5. The prophet Jeremiah expressed similar concerns about his generation:
1 “O that my head were a spring of water,
and my eyes a fountain of tears,
that I might weep day and night
for the slain of the daughter of my people!
2 O that I had a lodge for travelers in the wilderness,
that I might leave my people and go away from them!
For they are all adulterers,
a gang of traitors.
3 They bend their tongue like a bow
ready to shoot out lies.
They have grown strong in the land,
but not for the cause of truth;
for they proceed from one evil to the next,
and they do not know me,” says the LORD.
4 “Let each one beware of his neighbor,
and do not trust any brother.
For every brother will supplant by deception,
and every neighbor will go around as a slanderer.
5 Everyone will deceive his neighbor,
and no one tells the truth.
They have taught their tongue to speak lies;
they wear themselves out trying to commit sin.
6 Your home is in the midst of one lie on top of another.
They refuse to know me,” says the LORD.
7 Therefore this is what the LORD of hosts says,
“I will refine and test them,
for what else can I do with my people?
8 Their tongue is a deadly arrow;
it speaks deceit.
Each one speaks friendly words to his neighbor with his mouth,
but in his heart he sets up an ambush for him.
9 Shall I not punish them for these things?” says the LORD.
“Shall I not avenge myself on such a nation as this?”
The Old Testament, however, contains beautiful stories of those who had love and respect for members of their extended families, such as the story of Ruth, see 1:15-18; 2:11-12, 17-18; 3:1-5, 17; 4:13-17; and for the friendship of David and Jonathan 1 Samuel 18:1-4 and chapter 20. In the last days, the prophet Elijah will return to restore severed family relationships, Malachi 4:5-6.
7:7 The God who Saves
It could be suggested that vs. 7 starts the hope oracle of 7:7-10 or conversely it could end the lament oracle of 7:1-7. It also could be identified as a stand-alone statement linking the two oracles together which is the way it is suggested in this Messianic study of Micah. As there is no real consensus among scholarly works on Micah as to the placement of vs. 7 it seems best to let it stand by itself both concluding one section and beginning another.
7 But as for me, I will look to the LORD;
I will wait for the God of my salvation.
My God will hear me.
The word “but” is not in the Hebrew text but is supplied as a transition to Micah’s corrective testimony of how to have a right relationship with the LORD. Micah was not going to be immersed into the wickedness of his society nor live by its rebellious morals. Micah previously made a similar statement in 3:8 regarding his departure from the norms of those to whom he ministered. Micah was set apart from his society. He was filled with the Spirit of the LORD and with justice and strength to forthrightly declare the sinfulness of the covenant people of God. In 7:7 the prophet cites two imperatives that guide this relationship. He first states that he will “look” to the LORD. The Amplified translation adds the word “expectantly” after “look” to give a sense of the intensity and steadfastness of his looking. The word “look” is the Hebrew ṣâp̱â, which is often translated as “watchmen” as is the case in 7:4. See comments on “watchmen” in notes for 7:4. The NLT has “I will look to the LORD for help” adding the expectation of his looking. He had confidence that the LORD would indeed provide help as did the prophet Habakkuk who also waited for the LORD’S response, described in a picture of one who stands on a rampart (watchtower), Habakkuk 2:1. King David also expressed similar words,
16 As for me, I will call upon God, and the LORD will save me.
17 Evening, morning and noon,
I will express my complaint, and moan,
and he will hear my voice.
18 He will ransom me in safety from the battle waged against me,
even though many are against me.
19 God who sits enthroned will hear, and humble them, Selah
because they never change, and do not fear God. Psalm 55:16-19
The second imperative action that Micah declared was that he would “wait” for the God of his salvation. The Amplified translation has “I will wait [with confident expectation]” The NLT has “I will wait confidently.” Micah is expressing his confident assurance that waiting on the LORD will not be in vain but will result in a response from Yahweh. The word “wait” in 7:7 is the Hebrew yâḥal, which has the meaning of a patient hope or expectation. The LORD expressed the confident hope of the peoples of the earth in His salvation, as they expectantly wait (yâḥal) for Him, “My righteousness is near, my salvation is gone out, and my arms will judge the peoples. The coastlands will expectantly wait for me, and they will hope on my arm.” Isaiah 51:5. Jeremiah expressed his hope (yâḥal) in the LORD:
21 ז But this is what I call to mind
and therefore have I hope:
22 ח The loyal love of the LORD never fails,
because his compassions never end.
23 ח They are fresh every morning;
great is your faithfulness.
24 ח “The LORD is my portion,” I tell myself;
“therefore I will hope in him.
Lamentations 3:21-24 (yâḥal is translated as “hope” in vss. 21 and 24)
Micah’s confident expectation as he looks to the LORD and waits for Him is that the LORD will certainly hear him, (NLT), for Micah declares, He is the “God of my salvation.” This phrase is often found in the DASV in the Psalms, 18:46; 25:5; 27:9; 51:14; 88:1 and also in Habakkuk 3:18. Psalm 18:46 is a marvellous expression of worship, often set to music, “The LORD lives! Blessed be my rock! May the God of my salvation be exalted.” King David also declared that he would wait for the LORD, who is the God of His salvation, “Guide me in your truth, and teach me, for you are the God of my salvation, I expectantly wait for you all day long.” Psalm 25:5. A related phrase, “God of your salvation” occurs in Isaiah 17:10.
The word for God in 7:7 is the Hebrew ’elôhîym (plural) which occurs in the book of Micah in 3:7: 4:2; 4:5 (God); 4:5 (gods); 5:4; 6:6; 6:8; 7:7 (twice); 7:10 and 7:17. The plural form of ’elôhîym should not be understood as being a suggestion for the existence of more than a singular God but an indication of the completeness and fulness of God. 8 The word “salvation” Hebrew êyša‘ in Micah 7:7 refers to the work of God in deliverance and rescue providing safety rather than in what Christians would normally expect as salvation (eternal life).9 In the O.T. the word salvation êyša‘ occurs 36 times: 2 Samuel 22:3, 36, 47; 1 Chronicles 16:35; Job 5:4, 11; Psalm 12:5; 18:2, 35, 46; 20:6; 24:5; 25:5; 27:1, 9; 50:23; 51:12; 62:7; 65:5; 69:13; 79:9; 85:4; 85:7, 9; 95:1; 132:16; Isaiah 17:10; 45:8; 51:5; 61:10; 62:11; Micah 7:7; Habakkuk 3:13 (twice) and 3:18.
Micah is confident that God would certainly hear him. It is implied by this confidence that this would not be just an acknowledgment that God would hear his words, but that God would respond to him and rescue him from the punishment coming to this evil generation. Solomon expressed confidence that God would hear his prayer, that was said at the dedication of the first temple. 1 Kings 8:27-30. Solomon’s father David had the utmost assurance that God would hear him based upon his relationship with Him, “But know that the LORD has set apart the godly for himself; the LORD will hear when I call to him.” Psalm 4:3. This was also expressed by David in Psalm 6:9, “The LORD has heard my supplication; the LORD will accept my prayer.”
Notes for Micah 7:1-7
- See discussion by R. Laird Harris on ḥeseḏ, including ḥâsîyd, article 698 in TWOT, pages 305-307. See also extended article on ḥeseḏ, by H. J. Stoebe, in Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament, Hendrickson Publishers, 1997, volume 2, pages 449-464
- See Bruce K. Waltke, A Commentary on Micah, page 426.
- See article 1558b in TWOT.
- For a discussion on the meaning of “watchmen” see J. l. Mackay, Ezekiel: A Mentor Commentary, Christian Focus Publications, 2018, volume 1, pages 145-146.
- For a short discussion on the timing of this punishment see J. M. Hoyt, Amos, Jonah & Micah, page 787.
- For a discussion on the lack of fidelity in the Judean households, see Leslie C. Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1976, pages 388-389.
- See article 241 in TWOT. See also article on “House” by H. G. Stigers in ZEPD, Volume 3, pages 217-220 and article on “House” by Arch. C. Dickie in ISBE, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1939, Volume 3, pages 1434-1438.
- See Bruce K. Waltke, A Commentary on Micah, page 430.
- Refer to Salvation article by Michael D. Morrison in the Lexham Bible Dictionary, Logos Software and also TWOT article 929 by John E. Hartley.