4:1-5:15 The Blessed Future Messianic Kingdom
The basic outline of Micah reveals three major messages, (1) Retribution: Micah 1:1-2:13; (2) Kingdom: Micah 3:1-5:15; and (3) Worship: Micah 6:1-7:20. Each major message consists of two sections, judgment and promise. In the second and central message of Micah’s prophecy, entitled “Kingdom,” 3:1-12 is the section of judgment and 4:1-5:15 is the section of promise.
The section of promise 4:1-5:15, “The Blessed Future Messianic Kingdom” has this outline:
- 4:1-8 The Conditions of the Kingdom
- 4:9-5:1 The Circumstances before the Kingdom
- 5:2-5a The Champion of the Kingdom
- 5:5b-9 The Control of the Kingdom
- 5:10-15 The Cleansing of the Kingdom
a. 4:1-8 The Conditions of the Kingdom
This section presents a dramatic contrast to the devastation of 3:12. Micah had left his audience with an unbelievable (to them) and incomprehensible portrait of the plight of their beloved temple and its mountain. Instead of giving more details of this destruction, Micah reveals details of God’s future plans for this site which is holy to God. See Psalm 2:6, 48:1; Joel 2:1, 3:17; Obadiah 1:17 and Zechariah 8:3. There are several contrasting aspects between the day of the prophets, Micah 1:1-3:12 and the day of the Lord, Micah 4:1-8. These are suggested contrasts although some may find less or even additional points of contrast.1
|Contrasts between Micah’s day, Micah 1:1-3:12 and the day of the Lord Micah 4:1-8|
|#||Type of Contrast||Days of Micah’s Ministry||Micah Reference||Last Days in the Far Future||Micah Reference|
|1||Time||From 735-700 B.C.||1:1||After the 2nd Advent of the Messiah||4:1-8|
|2||Eminence||Mount Zion under judgment||3:12||Mount Zion – Chief of Mountains||4:1|
|3||Situation||Mount Zion to be plowed||3:12||Mount Zion – lifted above the hills||4:1|
|4||Motion||Exile – away from Zion||1:16, 2:10||Pilgrimage – to the Lord’s House||4:1-2|
|5||Presence||God will not answer||3:4||God will teach and judge||4:2-3|
|6||Teaching||Corrupt teaching||3:11||Divine teaching||4:2|
|7||Law||Ignorance/denying law||3:1-11||Righteous application of law||4:2|
|8||Obedience||People led astray – rebel||1:5, 2:8||People walk in Lord’s paths and name||4:2, 5|
|9||Judgment||Corrupt judges||3:9||Divine Judge||4:3|
|10||Peace||False teaching of peace||3:5||True peace||4:3|
|11||Security||False sense of security||2:6, 3:11||True long-lasting security||4:4|
|12||Worship||Worship of idols -high places||1:5||Worship Messiah by obedience||4:5|
|13||Healing||God’s people brutalized||3:2-3||God’s people restored||4:6-7|
|14||Strength||Judah to be ruined||2:3-5||Messiah’s Kingdom Established||4:7-8|
|15||Rule||Corrupt Rulers – Rule to end||3:9-11||Divine Ruler – Rule forever||4:7|
Introduction to Micah 4:1-4:
The Introduction and notes on Micah 4:1-4 are adapted from the author’s Isaiah: A Messianic Study.
The first four verses of chapter 4 of Micah provide a prophetic vision of the future kingdom of God in which the Lord Himself will be a judge over and be a teacher to the nations. The vision concerns Zion and Jerusalem, vs.2; and the specific location is called the mountain of the LORD’s house, vs. 1 which will be established as the highest of the earth’s mountains and all peoples will flow to it, vs. 1. The Lord will issue His word and law from Zion and many peoples will desire to go up to the mountain of the LORD to be taught by Him, so they can walk in His paths, vs. 2. The LORD will be the judge between the nations in this kingdom which will be peaceful and in which the nations on earth will never again learn war or rise up against each other, vss. 3-4.
These four verses come as an abrupt change to the judgment of God over Zion and Jerusalem recorded in Micah 3:12. The Lord will keep His covenant promises and although for a time His judgment on the relentless sins of His covenant people will result in the destruction of the temple (the LORD’s house), a future day will witness the exaltation of it. The vision concerns Judah and Jerusalem in the last days. So, it is in the far future from Micah’s time. The last days refer to a future time when nations never again will learn war. Even a cursory study of history will reveal that so far this has not taken place, so the last days must still be in the future in our time. Therefore, Micah, like Isaiah in Isaiah 2:1-4, is stating clearly that Judah, Jerusalem and Mount Zion will be inhabited, and the Lord will be in residence and that there will be other nations on the earth whose citizens will go to Zion for teaching, so they can walk in His paths.
There is also no indication from this passage or from any other passage in all of Scripture that these verses are a prophecy of a future church age. To render it so would be an indication that any passage in Isaiah or in the Old Testament cannot be taken at face value. To read “church” into this passage is purely allegorical speculation. What we can know for certain is that in the future, in the last days, the Lord Himself will be resident on Mount Zion in the City of Jerusalem in the nation of Judah. If the Lord is present, it will be as ruler of His kingdom. No other person would be suitable or worthy.
Micah 4:1-3 is a parallel passage to Isaiah 2:2-4.2 It may be that Micah incorporated the words of Isaiah into his prophecy or that he received the same message from the Holy Spirit. It is significant however that when the same words from God are proclaimed a second time, it cannot be ignored as just coincidence. Every word of God in the Scriptures has its purpose, “So will My word be which goes forth from My mouth; It will not return to Me empty, without accomplishing what I desire, and without succeeding in the matter for which I sent it,” Isaiah 55:11.
4:1 But in the last days the mountain of the LORD’s house
will be established as the chief of the mountains.
And will be lifted above the hills,
And peoples will flow to it.
But in the last days
Micah states that this prophecy concerns the last days. This is a literal reference to the days that concern the “days” of second coming of the Lord. Among premillennial scholars there is a considerable amount of literature dealing with the meaning of and the Scriptural references to the “last days.”3 Most of these scholars agree that these days are also described in related terms such as “latter days,” “in that day,” and “day of the Lord” including specific references in context to “this day” and “that day.” There are however, several points of view as to the precise beginning of the “last days” and what is included during these days. It is not within the scope of this study to examine these various viewpoints. For sake of brevity, these days can be understood as relating to the time when the Lord will fulfill His plans for judgment upon the world and His covenant people and establish His Messianic Kingdom which will lead to His eternal kingdom. Some suggest that a wider understanding of the “last days” indicates that they started during the first advent of Jesus Christ. Others suggest they will begin following the rapture of the Church and the commencement of the Tribulation period. Some may narrow this viewpoint to the beginning of the Great Tribulation which has a duration of 3 ½ years. It is best to not be too dogmatic about exact timeframes as this often leads to attempts to pinpoint the time of the second coming of the Messiah.
A few selected and significant Scriptural passages regarding these days include Deuteronomy 4:20; Isaiah 2:2-4 and 12-22; 11:10-16; 24:21-23; 25:9; 26:1-3; 27:1-13; 28:5; 29:17-24; 30:19-26; Jeremiah 23:20; 46:10; Ezekiel 38:16; Hosea 3:5; Joel 2:31; 3:14; Amos 5:18-20; Obadiah 1:15; Micah 4:1-4, 6-7; 5:4-15; 7:10-20; and Zechariah 14:1-21. There are many other passages that could also be cited.
The mountain of the LORD’s house will be established as the chief of the mountains
Micah begins his description regarding these last days with a statement about the mountain upon which the house of the Lord will reside. This mountain, Zion will be, at that time, the “highest,” Hebrew rô’š, which has the meaning of “head” “top” or “first.” The word occurs 598 times in the O.T. and is translated in the KJV as “head” 349 times, as “chief” 91 times and as “top” 73 times. As the chief of the mountains, it will have the most esteemed status among all the mountains and hills of the earth. This esteemed status will be due to its exalted and majestic ruler, the Messiah who will reside upon it.
In the ancient world, mythical pagan deities were said to have resided on high mountains. These pagan deities however could not do anything because they were non-existing imaginary beings. They were often “represented” by carved images/idols which were objects of worship. In sharp contrast, Messiah who will reside on Zion in the last days will have ultimate supremacy over any other so-called god or pagan deity. In fact, there is no comparison whatsoever among the world’s so-called deities to God, as there is only one true God as Isaiah so emphatically declares, Isaiah 43:10; 44:8; 45:5, 14, 18, 21, 22; 46:9.
And will be lifted above the hills
Micah also states that this mountain is that it will be “lifted above the hills,” One possible understanding of this mountain that is lifted or raised above the hills is that, due to the cataclysm described in Revelation 16:17-21 near the end of the great tribulation, all other mountains and hills have been leveled and according to Micah 4:1, it is Zion alone which will be raised and be the exalted mountain of God. Some understand that there is both a physical and spiritual sense to these descriptive terms for Mount Zion. It will be lifted physically and also seen or understood as “lifted” because of the presence of the Messiah upon it.
And peoples will flow to it.
Micah further states that in the last days all peoples (nations) will flow (stream) to this mountain. The word “flow” is the Hebrew nâhar which has the sense of being a spontaneous movement4 due to the desire for the peoples to meet their Messiah. The identification of the mountain is Zion, the Lord’s beloved dwelling place on earth. Its location is in His capital city, Jerusalem. The time frame is at the beginning of the Lord’s messianic earthly kingdom when all rebellion against God the Father and His Son, Jesus Christ will be destroyed. The Son, who is the Suffering Servant described by Isaiah, and is the long-awaited Messiah will be preparing His administration to rule the earth in justice and peace.
Peoples from all nations who have survived the great tribulation and who will not worship the beast (the antichrist) but will remain faithful to the Lord, will come to Zion to worship their Lord in person. Among them will be the scattered remnant, the faithful Jews, who will have believed in their Messiah for salvation, and who will also come from all the nations to worship their Messiah. This is one of the marvelous themes of the writing prophets of the Old Testament. Selected examples include Isaiah 11:11-12; 14:1-2; 27:12; 43:1-7; 49:1-26; 54:7; 56:6-7; 60:1-14; 66:18-21; Jeremiah 3:11-18; 12:15; 23:1-8; 24:6; 31:1-14; 32:37-44; Ezekiel 11:14-20; 20:33-44; 28:25-26; 34:11-31; 36:22-38; 37:11-28; 39:25-29; Hosea 12:9; Joel 3:1; Amos 9:11-15; Micah 2:12-13; 4:1-8; Zephaniah 3:12-20; and Zechariah 10:1-12.
4:2 Many nations will come and say,
“Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD,
and to the house of the God of Jacob.
He will teach us his ways,
and we will walk in his paths.”
For the law will go forth out of Zion,
and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
During this time, the messianic reign of Christ, the peoples of the earth who have survived the horrors of the great tribulation will be those who seek the Lord. They will have a desire to travel to Mount Zion to learn from the Messiah, who is described in Micah 2:13 as the “leader,” “King” and “LORD,” in 4:2 as “the God of Jacob,” and in 5:2 as “the ruler of Israel.” Not only will they receive instruction from the LORD, but they will heed His word and walk in His ways. No greater contrast to the days of Micah could be stated. Micah, as did Isaiah, proclaimed the Lord’s message to deaf ears. God’s covenant people refused to listen to His servants the prophets. They continued in their wickedness and rebelliousness against God. As a result a later generation, in 605-586 B.C. would face God’s wrath upon them and witness the complete destruction of their city and temple. They would be exiled from their homeland and deported to Babylon, Micah 4:10. In the last days, however, God’s covenant people and the peoples of the earth will go up to mountain of the LORD and listen to His word and “walk in his paths.” As Mount Zion will be the residence (house) of the LORD, He will make decrees and His word will be dispensed as law, Hebrew tôrâ (teaching, instruction) to all the nations of the earth.
A later prophet from Micah’s day recorded as similar message, “This is what the LORD of hosts says: Peoples and the inhabitants from many cities will come. 21 The inhabitants of one town will go to another, saying, Let’s go right now to ask the favor of the LORD, and to seek the LORD of hosts. I will go too. 22 Many peoples and strong nations will come to seek the LORD of hosts in Jerusalem, and to ask the favor of the LORD. 23 This is what the LORD of hosts says: In those days, ten men from all the nations and languages will take hold of the skirt of one who is a Jew, saying, ‘Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.” Zechariah 8:20-23. These prophetic words relate also to Psalm 122. 5
Often, the Scriptures refer to Zion as the holy mountain. See Psalm 2:6; 3:4; 48:1; 87:1; Isaiah 11:9; 27:13; 56:7; 57:13; 65:11, 25 and 66:20; Ezekiel 20:40; 43:12; Daniel 9:16, 20; 11:45; Joel 2:1; 3:17; Obadiah vs. 16; Zephaniah 3:11 and Zechariah 8:3.
4:3 He will judge between many peoples,
and will settle disputes of strong nations far away.
They will beat their swords into plowshares,
and their spears into pruning hooks.
Nation will not lift up sword against nation,
nor will they learn war anymore.
During the millennial kingdom, the Messiah, will rule the earth and will be the supreme judge between the nations rendering righteous judgment. Moses in a much earlier day prophesized of the Messiah and stated that the “nations will be obedient to him,” Genesis 49:10. The word “strong” (strong nations), in 4:3, is the Hebrew ‘âṣûm, which in context of this passage should be understood as many or numerous. Isaiah refers to this righteous Judge in 11:14; 16:5; 33:22 and 51:5. The Lord is concerned with justice as Micah records in 2:1-11; 3:1-12; 6:9-16; and 7:1-6 and as Isaiah reveals in 1:27; 9:7; 16:5; 28:17; 30:18; 32:16; 33:5; 42:1, 3, 4; 51:4 and 61:8. Here again is one of the contrasts between the people of Micah’s day and those who will inhabit the Millennial kingdom of the Messiah. The Messiah will be the true righteous Judge compared to the corrupt judges Micah confronted who did not know and did not practice justice, Micah 3:1-3, 9-11.6
The Messiah will rule in peace and nations will no longer arm themselves for war. The words “swords” and “spears” represent the entire armaments for the nations existing prior to the Messianic kingdom.7 These nations (peoples) will thus be totally disarmed and without the means to conduct warfare. What is more significant is that these nations will no longer have the desire to prepare for and commit to warfare and thus, they will not “learn war anymore.” One of the great titles for the Messiah is “Prince of Peace,” Isaiah 9:6. The establishment of peace and the Lord’s desire to bring peace to His people is one of the grand themes of Isaiah, 9:7; 26:3, 12; 27:5; 32:17, 18; 52:7; 54:10; 55:12; 57:2, 19; 60:17 and 66:12. See also Ezekiel 37:26; Haggai 2:9 and Zechariah 9:10. In contrast, the wicked will not be recipients of peace, Isaiah 48:22 and 57:21.
4:4 But each person will sit under his own vine
and under his fig tree,
and no one will make them afraid,
for the mouth of LORD of hosts has promised it.
As a result of the total disarmament of the nations and the climate of peace within the Messianic Kingdom, there will be safety and security for everyone. The prophecy of people sitting under their own vine and under their own fig tree is a picture of confidence that there is nothing of which to be afraid.8 They will live outside of their houses just as safe as inside them. They will not fear for violence upon them, nor for harassment or oppression, nor for loss due to theft. See Isaiah 65:21-23. Also Isaiah reveals that there will also be no fear due to animals as they also will live in peace, Isaiah 11:6-9 and 65:25. They will be the first generation upon the earth to righteously fulfill the “golden rule,” Matthew 7:12 and Luke 6:31.
The certainty of these events coming true is validated by Micah’s statement completing 4:4, “for the mouth of the LORD of hosts has promised it.” The title here for the LORD is yhwh ṣâḇâ’ (Yahweh Sabaoth). This title was a favorite of several of the writing prophets, occurring in the NASB, 48 times in Isaiah, 71 times in Jeremiah; 12 times in Haggai; 46 times in Zechariah and 24 times in Malachi. It would be similar to the title of “Lord Almighty” representing His divine rule over all His creation. Thus anything the LORD of hosts promised would be fulfilled and all of His plans will come to fruition. There is no circumstance nor being, spiritual or human who can do anything to thwart His purposes. He is the “all powerful” One who is all knowing, and who is everywhere present. There is nothing He doesn’t know, for He knows all there is to know and all potential outcomes for every action. There is no place, spiritual or physical that He cannot go for He transcends all that He has created. God’s covenant people and all believers in Him should have absolute confidence in Him for all things in this life and for all eternity.
4:5 For all the peoples walk everyone in the name of their god;
but we will walk in the name of the LORD our God forever and ever.
This sentence seems to be out of place if applied to the Messianic kingdom for there will be no other gods to be worshipped during the kingdom age. It is likely that Micah is giving a plain contrasting message regarding the obedience to God of those in the last days compared to the worship of gods (’elôhîym)9 by the nations and even by sinful Israelites during Micah’s day. This message is a direct rebuke to Micah’s audience who have refused to walk in the name of their Creator and covenant keeping God. The first phrase is in the presence tense, “for all the peoples walk” while the second phrase is in the future tense, “but we will walk.” In Micah’s day the peoples worshipped their gods on the high places of Samaria and Jerusalem, Micah 1:5. Micah declared that God was coming out of His place and coming down to tread on the high places, 1:3. In the Messianic kingdom, the highest place both spiritually and physically will be on Mount Zion, the place of true worship of Messiah who will have His residence there. The people of faith (Micah included himself as “we” in 4:5), will forever walk in the name of the LORD.
A survey of selected English translations and paraphrases emphasizes the various ways scholars have translated the Hebrew text into English. The CEV version states, “we will always follow the Lord our God,” which is similar to the ICB, the NCV, the NET, the NLT and the TLB. The GNT has, “but we will worship and obey the Lord our God forever and ever.” The Message MSG, has, “But we live honoring God, and we’re loyal to our God forever and ever.” The NIRV has, “But we will worship and obey the Lord. He will be our God for ever and ever.” The Voice has, “but we move ahead in the name of the Eternal, Our True God, forever and ever.” The English Versions most cited in this study, the ESV, KJV, NASB, NIV, and NKJV, all have similar wording to the DASV. To conclude from a survey of the various translations of this phrase and from related sources, it seems best to state that to walk in the LORD’s name is to trust in Him, to obey Him and live by His precepts and statutes.
4:6 “In that day,” says the LORD,
“I will assemble those who are lame,
and I will gather those who were driven away,
those whom I afflicted.
4:7 I will make the lame a remnant,
and those who were cast off a strong nation.
The LORD will reign over them in Mount Zion
from now and forever.”
The words “in that day” in 4:6 in the context of this passage refers to the “last days” of 4:1. The word “day” must be understood as a timeframe when the LORD will fulfill His promises for judging the nations and His covenant people during the tribulation and establishing His Messianic rule over the earth. See notes on 4:1 for a brief discussion of the “last days.” It will include gathering His faithful remnant among whom will be the lame, those driven away and those whom He had afflicted. God made it very clear to His covenant people that the affliction and oppression they will face from other nations was initiated and controlled by God. See notes on 2:3. Isaiah reveals it will be the task of the Servant, the Messiah, to unite and restore His covenant people to their land:
“5 And now the LORD speaks who formed me in the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob back to him, that Israel might be regathered to him for I will be honored in the eyes of the LORD, my God is my strength. 6 He said, “It is too insignificant that you should be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the survivors of Israel. I will also make you a light to the nations, that you may bring my salvation to the ends of the earth.” 7 This is what the LORD says, the Redeemer of Israel and his Holy One, to one who is despised, to one whom the nations abhor, to one who is a servant of rulers: “Kings will see and rise up in respect. Princes will bow down because of the LORD, who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel, has chosen you.”8 This is what the LORD says, “In the time of my favor, I answered you; and in a day of salvation, I helped you. I will protect you, I will give you as a covenant for the people, to restore the land, to reestablish their desolate inheritances.” Isaiah 49:5-8. (bolding intentional).
Many O.T. promises depict the gathering of the faithful remnant from among the nations where they have been afflicted. This restoration to their land of promise by their Redeemer, the Messiah has not yet happened. Some may consider modern Israel as a fulfillment of these promises, but the current status of Israel is that of a secular people living in only a portion of the land promised to them and living without their Messiah residing among them. The promises of Micah 4:6-7 can only refer to a yet future day when God’s covenant people will have been faced the judgment of the tribulation, the time of Jacob’s trouble, Jeremiah 30:7. In those future days, these people will face oppression and affliction from the nations where they have been dispersed (driven away). Their affliction will come as judgment from God with the purpose of bringing them to repentance and the recognition of and faith in their Messiah. They will mourn for their Messiah, whom they had pierced, Zechariah 12:10, and cry out to Him to return, Hosea 5:15-6:3. The Messiah will return as a victorious warrior, Isaiah 63:1-6, who will gather His faithful remnant from among the nations, Isaiah 11:11-12. This will include those who are lame and the blind, as Jeremiah declared,
“7 For this is what the LORD says, “Sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout for the chief of the nations. Proclaim and praise, saying, ‘O LORD, rescue your people, the remnant of Israel.’ 8 I will bring them from the north country, and gather them from the ends of the earth, along with them will be the blind and the lame, both the woman with child and she who is in labor; a huge crowd will return here. 9 They will come with weeping; and with prayerful pleadings I will bring them back. I will lead them beside streams of waters, in smooth ways where they will not stumble, for I am Israel’s father, and Ephraim is my firstborn.” 10 “Hear the word of the LORD, O nations, and declare it in the coastlands afar off; say, ‘He who scattered Israel will regather him, and keep him as a shepherd protectively cares for his flock. 11 For the LORD has ransomed Jacob, and redeemed him from the hand of him who was stronger than him.’ 12 They will come and sing on the heights of Zion, and will be radiant over the goodness of the LORD, over the grain, new wine, and olive oil and the young of the flock and the herd. Their lives will become like a watered garden; they will never again wither away.13 Then the young women will joyfully dance, and the young men and the old will celebrate. For I will turn their mourning into joy, and will comfort them giving them joy for their sorrow. 14 I will satisfy the priests with abundance, and my people will be satisfied with my benefits,” says the LORD.” (Jeremiah 31:7-14) (bolding intentional).
The following is a selected (not exhaustive) list of references from the writing prophets indicating the Messiah’s rescuing and gathering of the faithful remnant from among the nations and bringing them to live with Him in peace in His Kingdom in which He will reign over them from Mount Zion.
Isaiah 1:26-27; 10:20-22; 11:11-12, 16; 27:12; 28:5; 35:6, 10; 37:31-32; 40:10-11; 42:6-7; 43:5; 49:6-8; 51:11; 52:8; 54:7; 56:8; 57:18; 58:8-12; 60:4.
Jeremiah 3:17; 16:15; 23:3-4; 29:14; 30:3, 17, 18; 31:7-14, 16-17, 23; 32:37, 44; 33:1-26; 42:12; 46:27; 50:20.
Ezekiel 6:8; 11:16-17; 20:33-44; 28:25; 34:11-16, 23-24; 36:24; 37:21-22; 38:14-18; 39:25-29;
Hosea 3:4-5; 5:15-6:3; 6:11.
Micah 2:12-13; 4:6-7; 5:7-8; 7:18.
Zephaniah 2:7-9; 3:12-13, 19-20.
Zechariah 8:11-12; 9:7,12; 10:8-12.
In Micah 4:7, the prophet declares, I will make the lame a remnant, and those who were cast off a strong nation. One of the most astonishing aspects of the gathering of the faithful remnant to Mount Zion and Jerusalem is that the Messiah will empower them to crush their enemies and obtain wealth from them. The “lame” will become strong conquerors. Micah further explains the strength the LORD will give to His faithful remnant to “thresh” the nations and “beat into pieces many peoples” and devote the nation’s wealth to the LORD in 4:13. Isaiah chapter 60 also reveals that among many wonderful promises to those being gathered to Mount Zion and Jerusalem, that the wealth of the nations will be brought to them, 60:5-11, 16-17, and those who previously oppressed and afflicted them will now bow before them, 60:14. Isaiah also reveals their power to crush the nations, “Look, I will make you to be a new sharp threshing instrument having many teeth. You will thresh the mountains, crush them and make the hills like chaff. 16 You will winnow them and the wind will carry them away, and the whirlwind will scatter them. Then you will rejoice in the LORD; you will glory in the Holy One of Israel.” Isaiah 41:15-16. Isaiah used the metaphor of mountains to describe the nations.
Micah finishes his statement, vs. 7 by declaring that on Mount Zion, the LORD will forever reign over them, (His faithful remnant who have been rescued from the nations and gathered to be with the LORD). Micah’s contemporary Isaiah had wondrously prophesized, “For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government will be upon his shoulders: and his name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. 7 Of the increase of his government and of peace there will be no end. He will rule on the throne of David, and over his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it with justice and with righteousness from this time forth forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will accomplish this.” Isaiah 9:6-7. See also Exodus 15:18; Psalm 146:10; Isaiah 24:23; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Luke 1:33; Revelation 11:15 and 22:5.
4:8 As for you, O guard tower of the flock,
the hill of the daughter of Zion,
to you it will come,
the former dominion will come,
the kingdom of the daughter of Jerusalem.
Micah 4:8 is a conclusion to the promises of 4:1-7. The LORD’s message is that Messiah’s marvellous promises of the gathering of the faithful remnant to Mount Zion and Jerusalem where He will reign over them forever will certainly come true. Micah uses two symbols to identify the recipients of these promises. The first symbol is the phrase “tower of the flock,” Hebrew mig̱ḏâl ‘êḏer, which was located near Bethlehem, Genesis 35:19-21, and thus represented the birthplace of the Messiah. The second phrase, “the hill (‘ôp̱el) of the daughter of Zion” represents Mount Zion where the Messiah will reign during His earthly kingdom.10 The “former dominion” refers to the kingdom under the rule of David and Solomon and also speaks of the expanded extent of the Messianic kingdom as explained in Ezekiel chapters 47 and 48. See also Luke 1:32-33.
Micah also uses two symbols, the phrases “daughter of Zion” and “daughter of Jerusalem,” to refer to God’s covenant people and the location of the capital where the Messiah will rule. In the DASV, the two phrases also occur together in 2 Kings 19:21; Isaiah 37:22; Lamentations 2:13; Zephaniah 3:14 and Zechariah 9:9. The only other occurrence of “daughter of Jerusalem” is in Lamentations 2:15. “Daughter of Zion” also occurs in Psalm 9:14; Isaiah 1:8; 10:32; 16:1; 52:2; 62:11; Jeremiah 4:31; 6:2, 23; Lamentations 1:6; 2:1, 4, 8, 10, 18; 4:22; Micah 1:13, 4:10, 13 and Zechariah 2:10. These phrases are used interchangeably to refer to God’s covenant people and should not be seen as each representing any singular or specific meaning.
Notes for Micah 4:1-8
- For another suggested listing, see, John A. Martin, Micah, “Characteristics of the Kingdom,” The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Editors, John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck, Victor, Cook Communications Ministries, 2004, pages 1483-85.
- For an extended discussion on Isaiah 2:2-4/Micah 4:1-5, see J. Randall Price, Isaiah 2:2-4/Micah 4:1-5: The Restoration of Israel in the Messianic Age, The Moody Handbook of Messianic Prophecy, pages 785-802.
- See J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come, Zondervan, 1958, pages 229 and following. Anthony C. Garland, A Testimony of Jesus Christ: A Commentary on the Book of Revelation, Spirit and Truth. Org, 2012, Section 2:13:3. David M Levy, Joel: The Day of the Lord: A Chronology of Israel’s Prophetic History, Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, 1987, (Logos Edition); notes on Joel 1:15. Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, The Footsteps of the Messiah, pages 181-86. Irwin A. Busenitz, Joel and Obadiah, A Mentor Commentary, Mentor, 2002, Theme, Day of Yahweh, (Logos Edition). Kenneth L. Barker, Zechariah, The Expositors Bible Commentary, Zondervan Corporation, 1985, pages 619-21.
- Charles L. Feinberg, The Minor Prophets, Moody Press, 1976, page 168.
- John MacArthur, NASB Updated Edition Study Bible, Thomas Nelson Inc. 2006, Notes for Zechariah 8:20-22, page 1318.
- Thomas Constable, Micah, page 39.
- Kenneth L. Barker, Micah, page 85.
- Charles L. Feinberg, Minor Prophets, page 169.
- For references to Elohim, See article by E. B. Smick, ZPEB, Volume 2, pages 294-295. See also extended article on Elohim by Michael S. Heiser in the online Lexham Bible Dictionary, Logos Software. For an in-depth study of the gods of the nations in the Ancient Near East, see Daniel I. Block, The Gods of the Nations: A Study in Ancient Near Eastern National Theology, 2nd Edition, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2013.
- Charles L. Feinberg, Minor Prophets, page 170.