Introduction to Micah

1.  Author and Date of the Prophecy of Micah

It is the generally accepted position of many evangelical scholars that the individual identified in Micah 1:1 as Micah (or Michaiah) of Moresheth was the author of the writings that are contained in the book of Micah. Other scholars, citing abrupt changes of discussion from one topic to another within Micah’s writings, have posited various opinions regarding the authorship of certain sections of the text. There is no documented proof, however that no one other than Micah wrote these messages. This does not, however, remove the possibility that an editor or editors took what Micah had written and placed them in the final form that we have in our modern Bible versions.

Micah (1:1) indicated that he was from Moresheth which was likely the village of Moresheth Gath (1:14) which was located approximately 32 kilometers southwest of Jerusalem and near the Philistine town of Gath. Gath was the hometown of the Philistine Goliath, 1 Samuel 17:4, 23. Previously Gath was one of the Philistine cities where the captured ark of God was sent for a brief time and abruptly sent to Ekron because of God’s punishment on the residents of Gath for having His ark in their pagan city, 1 Samuel chapter 5. The armies of King Uzziah captured Gath and the surrounding area, 2 Chronicles 26:6. The Assyrians later conquered all this area including Micah’s hometown of Moresheth as implied from Micah 1:14.

In Micah 1:1 the prophet stated that word of the LORD came to him in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah who were all Kings of Judah. Jotham’s official reign was from 750-735 B.C. He had co-reigned on behalf of  his father Uzziah 750-740 due to the punishment of God on Uzziah for trespassing in the temple to burn incense on the altar of incense, 2 Chronicles 26:16-21. Note the statement regarding Jotham in 2 Chronicles 26:21, “judging the people of the land.” One of the roles of the King was to act as judge. This is an important fact to remember when considering the meaning of Micah 5:1, “they will strike the judge of Israel with a rod on the cheek.” (NKJV). Some English versions in Micah 5:1 have the word “ruler” instead of “judge.”

The next king of Judah was Ahaz who ruled Judah officially 735-715 B.C. and he co-reigned with his father Jotham from c. 744-735 B.C. The last King mentioned in Micah 1:1 was Hezekiah, son of Ahaz. Hezekiah officially ruled Judah from 715-686 but he like his father and grandfather co-reigned with the previous King. Hezekiah co-reigned with Ahaz from 729-715 B.C.4  Taken together, these kings ruled from 744-686 B.C. but it is unlikely that Micah’s prophetic ministry covered the entire span of these years. Many scholars suggest that he likely ministered the word of God between 735-700 B.C.5

2.  Historical Background of the Prophecy of Micah

2.1. Overview

If Micah began his prophetic ministry during the earlier days of the reign of King Jotham, he would have witnessed the later days of years of relative peacefulness. The political acumen of Judean kings, Uzziah and his son Jotham and Jeroboam II of king of Israel resulted in acquisition of land and growth in wealth. The Assyrian Empire had not yet begun its aggressive campaign of expansion although that was soon to change. Peace and prosperity in Judah and Israel were, however, accompanied by the oppression of the poor by wealthy landowners, corrupt government administrators and money seeking religious leaders. This was exacerbated by wicked religious practices involving the worship of idols and detestable sexual rituals adopted from Canaanite pagan rites that were never expunged from the land from the days of Joshua. These atrocities brought God’s judgment upon Judah in the later days of Jotham, while he co-reigned with his son Ahaz in the form of incursions into Judah by the armies of Rezin of Syria and Pekah of Israel.

The years of the reign of Ahaz was particularly chaotic as Assyria, under the rule of king Tiglath-Pileser III, began to exert its military dominance threatening the lands east of the Mediterranean Sea. The incursions by Syria and Israel from the north intensified into full scale war resulting in the complete humiliation of Ahaz and his armed forces. Portions of Judah were also invaded in the south by the Philistines and Edomites. Following a request by Ahaz for military aid, to the king of Assyria accompanied with a huge monetary incentive, the Assyrians advanced into Israel and subjected it to a vassal state in 734 B.C. and later conquered Syria and killed king Rezin. In 722 B.C., the Assyrians fully conquered Samaria and had most of its citizens deported to other areas of the Assyrian empire.

The Assyrians became increasingly aggressive to Judah during the reign of king Hezekiah. In 701 B.C. the Assyrian forces conquered most of Judah and destroyed all of its walled cities and laid siege to Jerusalem but did not conquer it due to the direct intervention by God. It was during all of these days of threats, incursions and conquering armies that Micah and his contemporaries, Isaiah and Amos prophesized to Judah and Israel.

2.2. Kings of Judah

The Biblical account of the days of  the kings of Judah mentioned in Micah 1:1, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah are recorded in 2 Kings chapters 15, 16, 18-20; 2 Chronicles chapters 27-32. The reign of Jotham was relatively peaceful and prosperous, much like the days of  Uzziah’s reign. 2 Kings 15:34-37 states that, “He did what was right in the eyes of Yahweh, according to all that Uzziah his father had done. Only the high places were not removed; the people still were sacrificing and offering incense on the high places. He built the upper gate of the temple of Yahweh.  Now the remainder of the acts of Jotham that he did, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Judah?  (Now, in those days, Yahweh began to send Rezin the king of Aram and Pekah the son of Remaliah against Judah.). (LEB: Lexham English Bible, Logos Software). In 15:37 the author of 2 Kings adds the response of the LORD (Yahweh) who sent the kings of Aram and Israel against Judah. This response was for the continuing sinfulness of the people stated in 2 Chronicles 27:2,  “But the people still acted corruptly.” (LEB). This action (judgment) of Yahweh would lead to a greater conflict between Judah and the Syria/Israel alliance in the days of King Ahaz, 2 Kings chapter 16, and 2 Chronicles chapter 28.

King Ahaz was unlike his father and grandfather for he did not do what was right in the sight of the LORD, but “he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel and also made molten idols for the Baals.  And he himself burned incense in the valley of Ben-Hinnom and burned his sons in the fire, according to the detestable practices of the nations whom Yahweh drove out before the Israelites. And he sacrificed and burned incense at the high places, on the hilltops, and under every flourishing tree.” 2 Chronicles 28:2-4 (LEB).

The corruption of the people had reached the king’s palace. King Ahaz became the leader of all that was wicked before the LORD. The practice of burning children in the fire as a sacrifice to the pagan god Molech was particularly evil and detestable in the sight of Yahweh. In Jeremiah 32:26-35, Yahweh denounces this practice along with setting up abominable idols in the temple and erecting idols to Baal in the high places of the land and the increasing rebelliousness and wickedness of all His covenant people. Due to the wickedness of Ahaz, Yahweh delivered him into the hands of the kings of Syria and Israel.

The incursions of the Syria/Israel (Syro-Ephraimite) alliance against Judah had begun in Jotham’s time, as stated in 2 Kings 15:37 but increased in intensity to its culmination during the days of Ahaz. A major advance against Judah by the Syria/Israel alliance is described in 2 Chronicles 28:5-8 resulting in a great slaughter of the people (men) of Judah and the capturing of a very large number of women, sons and daughters. These captives would later be returned to Judah. 2 Chronicles 28:5-15. Although Judah was invaded, and Ahaz could not repel the enemy, Jerusalem and Ahaz were not captured. However a son of Ahaz, as well as at least two of his highest- ranking administrators were killed. 2 Chronicles 28:6 records the summary reason for the defeat of Judah, “because they forsook Yahweh the God of their ancestors.” (LEB).

Another military incursion is described in 2 Chronicles 28:16-18 involving the Edomites who had taken away captives and the Philistines who had invaded the areas south of Jerusalem. This southern invasion was likely made due to the weakened condition of the army of Ahaz which had been seriously routed by the Syria/Israel alliance. Thus, Ahaz was confronted with armed attacks incurring in both the north and the south of Judah. 2 Chronicles 28:19 gives Yahweh’s summary of why these attacks occurred, “For the LORD brought Judah low because of Ahaz king of Israel, for he had encouraged moral decline in Judah and had been continually unfaithful to the LORD.”  The statement in vs. 19 of Ahaz being king of Israel likely refers to the God’s continual superintendence of His covenant with David and the promises God had made regarding the rulers of the house of David over the people of Israel.

Ahaz sent a request to the king of Assyria along with a sizable amount of silver, gold and other treasures and asked the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III for help against the Syrian/ Israel alliance. Assyria did respond by capturing Damascus and killing king Rezin. 2 Kings 16:7-9. Assyrian documents assert that Israel came under the domination of this emerging super-power at this time which is likely 732 B.C.6

This response was more due to the imperialistic plans of Assyria to expand their territory than any desire to help Judah. Prior to this request by Ahaz, the prophet Isaiah had met with him at Yahweh’s request. Isaiah told Ahaz not to fear either Rezin of Syria or Pekah of Israel. These kings had plotted to remove Ahaz from the throne of Judah and replace him with another “king” who is identified only as the “son of Tabel.” Yahweh promised that the Syria/Israel alliance would not succeed and offered Ahaz a sign from Him consisting of anything Ahaz could imagine to ask. Ahaz rebelliously refused the offer of a sign. God, however, in response gave His own sign, which was the great messianic promise of the future miraculous birth of Jesus Christ. Isaiah announced that Yahweh, in  response to Ahaz’s defiance would bring the Assyrians against Judah with devastating results. Isaiah chapter 7.

Isaiah’s meeting with Ahaz must have been prior to the request for military intervention from Assyria, 2 Kings 16:7, for Yahweh would not have sent Isaiah to try to persuade Ahaz to trust only in Yahweh if Ahaz had already sent his request to the king of Assyria. This reveals another indication of the wicked heart of Ahaz who, after knowing of Yahweh’s intentions to bring the Assyrians against Judah, he sent this request.

Following Ahaz’s request for military assistance from Assyria, he travelled to Damascus to meet the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III. While in Damascus he saw and made offerings at a pagan altar in the former Syrian capital. Ahaz make a sketch of the altar and sent it to Urijah the priest who then built the altar in Jerusalem. Upon his return to Jerusalem, Ahaz had this abominable altar set up before the temple for the purpose of burning sacrifices, to the gods of Damascus, 2 Kings 16:10-16; 2 Chronicles 28:22-23.

Shortly after these events, the armed forces of Shalmaneser V, the successor to Tiglath-pileser III, completed the final subjugation of the northern kingdom of Israel including the capital of Samaria in 722 B.C. A majority of the people of Israel were taken captive and deported to many parts of the vast Assyrian empire. This deportation was under the command of Sargon II who succeeded Shalmaneser V shortly after Israel was conquered. The final overthrow of Israel and the deportation of its people did not seem to have instilled in Ahaz any repentance or desire to turn in faith to Yahweh. The final Biblical summaries of the life of Ahaz, do not give any indication that he at any time in his life considered or had any interest in Yahweh.

The last days of Ahaz are described in 2 Kings 16:19-20 and 2 Chronicles 28:22-27. The passage in 2 Chronicles 28:22-27 reveals God’s summary of the life of this wicked and rebellious king, “22 And in the time of his distress, King Ahaz continued to act unfaithfully against Yahweh. 23 He sacrificed to the gods of Damascus that had defeated him and said, “Because the gods of the king of Aram helped them, I will sacrifice to them so that they will help me.” But they were ⌊a disaster⌋ to him and to all Israel. 24 Then Ahaz gathered the objects of the house of God, and he cut the objects of the house of God to pieces. And he shut the doors of the house of Yahweh and made for himself altars in every corner of Jerusalem. 25 And ⌊in every city⌋ of Judah he made high places to burn incense to other gods, and he provoked Yahweh, the God of his ancestors, to anger. 26 Now the remainder of his words and all his ways, from the first to the last, behold, they are written upon the scroll of the kings of Judah and Israel. 27 And Ahaz slept with his ancestors, and they buried him in the city, in Jerusalem, for they did not bring him to the burial site of the kings of Israel. And Hezekiah his son became king in his place.”  (LEB).

Micah also continued to proclaim the words Yahweh gave him during the reign of Hezekiah who reigned in Judah following the death of Ahaz from 715 to 686 B.C. Micah, however, may have ministered God’s word for only a part of this reign. Although the words of Micah, given to him from Yahweh seemed to have little or no affect on Ahaz, these words were taken to heart by Ahaz’s son Hezekiah.

Hezekiah began his official reign at age twenty-five and reigned in Jerusalem for twenty-nine years (2 Kings 18:2). 2 Kings 18:3-8 give an early summary of the life of Hezekiah, “3 And he did what was right in the eyes of the LORD, according to all that David his father had done. 4 He removed the high places and broke the pillars and cut down the Asherah. And he broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had made offerings to it (it was called Nehushtan). 5 He trusted in the LORD, the God of Israel, so that there was none like him among all the kings of Judah after him, nor among those who were before him. 6 For he held fast to the LORD. He did not depart from following him, but kept the commandments that the LORD commanded Moses. 7 And the LORD was with him; wherever he went out, he prospered. He rebelled against the king of Assyria and would not serve him. 8 He struck down the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territory, from watchtower to fortified city.” (ESV). The account of the events of life of Hezekiah are recorded in 2 Kings 18:1 to 20:21; 2 Chronicles 29:1 to 32:33; and Isaiah 36:1 to 39:8.

Besides the religious reforms instituted by Hezekiah, the king was severely tested in his obedience to Yahweh during his illness which is recorded in Isaiah chapter 38, 2 Kings 20:1-11 and 2 Chronicles 32:24. He was also tested when he welcomed the envoys from Babylon recorded in 2 Kings 20:12-19; 2 Chronicles 32:31 where it is recorded, “God withdrew from him, in order to test him, that He might know all that was in his heart.” (NKJV). See also Isaiah chapter 39:1-8. The days of the illness of Hezekiah may have prompted the Assyrians to attack Judah perhaps surmising that a weakened king would be easy prey. Students of Scripture should be aware that the events of Hezekiah’s sickness and the reception of the envoys from Babylon actually preceded the attack on Judah by Assyria.7

Hezekiah was tested again by the aggressive actions of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, who had gained the throne in 705 B.C. following the reign of Sargon II. Sennacherib’s armed forces conquered all the fortified cities of Judah in 701 B.C. Hezekiah tried to appease Sennacherib by paying an enormous amount, 2 Kings 18:14-16. This payment, however, did not turn away Sennacherib’s desire to conquer Jerusalem and he sent his forces to surround Jerusalem and sent three of his commanders, with the Rabshakeh as their spokesman to try to persuade Hezekiah to surrender the city to Sennacherib.

After hearing the account of the arrogant and blasphemous words from the Rabshakeh, Hezekiah sent his servants to Isaiah to seek God’s rebuke on the Assyrians. Isaiah replied, “Thus you shall say to your master, “Thus says the LORD: “Do not be afraid of the words which you have heard, with which the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed Me. Surely I will send a spirit upon him, and he shall hear a rumor and return to his own land; and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.” 2 Kings 19:6-7, (NKJV).

After Isaiah had spoken these words, the attention of the king of Assyria was re-directed away from Jerusalem but he had sent a letter to Hezekiah with further arrogant and blasphemous words regarding Yahweh. Hezekiah took the letter to the house of the LORD and prayed over it, 2 Kings 19:14-19. In response to this prayer Yahweh sent Isaiah to Hezekiah with comforting words stating that the king of Assyria would not come into Jerusalem and that Yahweh would save the city for the sake of His servant David. 2 Kings 19:20-34. Yahweh then sent His angel to the camp of the Assyrians killed 185,000 of the Assyrian soldiers. King Sennacherib returned to his capital city Nineveh where later he was assassinated by two of his sons. 2 Kings 19:35-37; 2 Chronicles 32:20-21; Isaiah 37:36-38.

2.3. Kings of  Israel

Because Micah declares that Yahweh’s judgment was coming upon Israel, it is appropriate to give a brief historical background of the events of the kings of Israel during the years of the prophetic ministry of Micah.

The time of the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, was from c. 750-686 B.C. The kings of the northern kingdom Israel during this time were Menahem, who reigned from 752-742 B.C.; Pekahiah, who reigned from 742-740 B.C.;  Pekah, who reigned from 752-732 B. C. Pekah co-reigned with Menahem from

752-742 B.C and he also co-reigned with Pekahiah from 742-740 B.C. The last king of Israel was  Hoshea who reigned from 732-722 B.C. The Biblical account of the reigns of Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, and Hoshea are recorded in 2 Kings 15:17-22 (Menahem); 2 Kings 15:23-26 (Pekahiah); 2 Kings 15:27-31 (Pekah) and 2 Kings 17:1-4 (Hoshea). The story of the Assyrian conquest of Israel and the re-settlement of the people of Israel is given in 2 Kings 17:5-17:41. Some additional aspects of  story of the acts of the kings of Israel during this time are recorded in 2 Chronicles 28:5-16.

The story or the origin of the northern kingdom of Israel is recorded in 1 Kings 11:26 to 12:24. It was the LORD, in judgment upon the sins of Solomon, who ordained that their would be two kingdoms, the northern kingdom of Israel would have ten tribes and the southern kingdom of Judah would have two tribes. From the very beginning of the establishment of the northern kingdom, its first king Jeroboam I, set up idols, calves made of god, for the people of the northern kingdom to worship. He also set up shrines on the high places and established a line of priests that were not from the line of Levi, 1 Kings 12:25-33.

The introductory summary of Menahem’s life and reign are recorded in 2 Kings 15:18, “And he did evil in the sight of the LORD; he did not depart all his days from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who had made Israel sin.” (NKJV). This was the evil legacy of Jeroboam I which was passed on to the kings who followed him right up to the time of the destruction of Israel in 722 B.C. The Biblical account of the lives of the kings mentioned above including their evil acts indicate that they led the people of Israel to sin and be continually rebellious to Yahweh. Just as the creation of Israel as a nation was an act of God’s judgment so was its eventual destruction. It was the continual corruption, rebelliousness and wickedness of the people of Israel, made most manifest by committing spiritual adultery against God by their worshipping of idols, including detestable and unspeakable practices associated with their idol worship, that brought God’s judgment upon them.

3. The Message and Major Themes of the Prophecy of Micah

Although Micah is a relatively short book, it contains more messianic content in relation to its size than any other prophetic book in the Old Testament. Micah, like most prophetic books, is written not as prose but as poetry. Micah often uses Hebrew parallelism to repeat an idea and for emphasis. In 1:10-16 Micah used several puns (play on words) by how the Hebrew word sounded to make his point.

3.1. The main message of Micah

God expects His covenant people to be faithful to Him and worship Him with true devotion and wholeheartedness, and He demands justice and righteousness in the social, religious, political, and judicial spheres of His covenant people, for He judges and punishes those who sin  but forgives sins and pardons iniquities, and in the far future, He will rescue, redeem and restore His covenant people to  be citizens of a magnificent kingdom ruled by a Messianic King. If one verse could summarize the main personal message of Micah to everyone, it is likely 6:8, 

He has showed you, O man, what is good.
What does the LORD require of you?
To do justice,
to love faithfulness,
and to walk humbly with your God.

3.2. Major Themes of the prophecy of Micah:

a. God

Although Micah is book of messages regarding the social injustices and other sins of the nations of Judah and Israel, and His promises of a better future for them,  an important theme of Micah’s writings is God Himself. Micah reveals that God is a deity of action who calls, rebukes, pleads, judges, punishes, leads, protects, shepherds, redeems, restores, and forgives sins. One of the key verses is Micah is 7:18, “Who is a God like you, pardoning iniquity and passing over transgression for the remnant of his inheritance?” (ESV). This is likely an intentional question by Micah for his name has the meaning of, “who is like the Lord?” Everywhere that Micah went and proclaimed God’s word, his audience would be reminded of this great truth.

Micah also reveals what God is like by the names the prophet assigns to Him. English names for God in Micah (NKJV) are: LORD 1:1 (occurs 40 times in Micah); Lord God, 1:2  Spirit of the LORD, 2:7; 3:8; The one who breaks, 2:13; King, 2:13; God, 3:7; 7:18; God of Jacob, 4:2; LORD of hosts, 4:4; LORD our God, 4:5; 7:17; Lord of the whole earth, 4:13; The One, 5:2; Ruler 5:2; LORD His God, 5:4; High God, 6:6; Your God, 6:8; God of my salvation, 7:7; My God, 7:7; LORD your God, 7:10; and Shepherd, (an action word for what God is requested to do) 7:14.

b. Social Injustice

One of  Micah’s major concerns regarding his people was the injustice and mistreatment by the higher ranks, commercial, political and religious, including the more privileged of society towards those who were the most vulnerable and the poor. Significant passages in Micah describing this injustice are 2:1-11; 3:1-12; 6:9-16; and 7:1-15.

c. Judgment for Sin

As the outline of Micah reveals, the book generally consists of three oracles of God’s indictment and Judgment followed by a declaration of future salvation. God gave a blatant and stunning indictment of the sins of Israel and Judah. Micah proclaimed that judgment of God will come upon the people of Israel and Judah: for their continued wicked practice of being unfaithful to His covenant. This involved  worshipping idols on the “high places” (1:5); for paying money to indulge in sexual rites with cultic prostitutes (1:7) for  premeditating on and then committing hideous crimes against their own people (2:1-2) for allowing false prophets to speak for God (2:6-11) for evil loving rulers who strip and beat the poor into the ground, who hate and pervert justice, commit murder, accept bribes and for priests and prophets who teach and prophesy for money (3:1-3, 9-11) for the lies of false prophets (3:5-7); (for a future time) for practicing witchcraft and casting of spells, worshiping carved images, and sacred stones or pillars (5:12-14); for hypocritical worship of God (6:6-7); for deceitful business practices (6:10-11); for committing violence, telling lies, and being deceitful (6:120; for observing the statues of Omri and the practices of Ahab (6:16); for nation-wide evilness (7:2a); killing family members (7:2b); for pursing bribes and gifts and evil scheming (7:3); for deceit among family members (7:6).

God’s punishment for these sins include prophecy of the destruction of Samaria (1:6-7); the coming devastation of many towns in Judah (1:10-16); disaster to come upon the families of Judah (2:3-5); prophets will not hear from God (3:6-7); the coming destruction of Zion and Jerusalem (3:12); exile in Babylon (4:10); the judge of Israel to be struck (5:1); Israel’s enemy Assyria to be punished (5:5b-6); future chastisement and punishment on God’s covenant people (5:10-14); future judgment on the nations (5:15); the evildoers of Judah will be made sick, desolate; and will fall victim to oppressors. Their crops will fail; their land will be desolate; and they will suffer shame, reproach and humiliation at the hand of their enemies (6:13-16); the righteous will perish; and evil will overtake the land (7:2-6).

d. Salvation

Micah’s prophecy is not all doom and gloom. Following each indictment for sin and the resulting punishment by God is a promise of salvation, rescue and restoration, (2:12-13; 4:1-5:15; and 7:8-20). These promises were for a later time. Some were to be fulfilled during the first advent of Christ, 5:2; but most will be fulfilled during the reign of the coming Messianic King, during the later days. For many of these promises, salvation can be understood as being saved from physical harm and destruction. But there is a spiritual salvation available to those who trust in the God who pardons sins and forgives transgressions, (7:18-19).

e. Messiah, His Birth and His Future Reign

Micah announced the birth of One who will be a future ruler in Israel (5:2). This was later to be fulfilled in the birth of Jesus Christ who is the Christ (the Messiah), Matthew 2:6. Micah had much to proclaim about a future day of peace when Christ, the  Messianic King will come and rescue His remnant who are being held captive, (2:12-13). This King will rule from His exalted house which will sit upon mount Zion. Peoples from the nations will come to the King to receive instruction and to listen to his laws and words. This King will be a judge to all the earth which will enjoy peace, health safety and tranquility. The King’s people among the Gentile nations will have no fear of any oppression. The Messianic King  will punish any nation that defies Him (4:1-5:1; 5:2-15; 7:7-20).

4. Micah in the New Testament

The well-known prophecy of the birthplace of Jesus Christ the Messiah is recorded in Micah 5:2. This prophecy made at least 700 years prior to the birth of Christ. Matthew 2:1-6 is the record of how Micah’s prophecy was fulfilled. The apostle John in his gospel, 7:42 also referenced Micah 5:2 in a discussion regarding Christ’s place or birth. Micah 7:6 regarding enemies that are in one’s own house, is quoted by Jesus, in Matthew 10:34, in His statement that He came to bring a sword in judgment upon His people. See also Mark 13:12 and Luke 12:53.